Bluetree (previously XPortMC), part of Blueshell, is a tree-like interconnect for a network on chip (NoC) built using Bluespec System Verilog (BSV). The interconnect enables a large number of CPUs to share access to a single shared memory port. The memory port is the root of the tree, and the CPUs are its leaves. Find Bluetree in the internal SVN at


Bluetree is only intended to be used to connect CPUs (and other processing elements) to memory.

Other sorts of device (I/O, co-processors) can be connected together via Bluetiles, our NoC system. Bluetiles is intended to be used for communications between CPUs, and between CPUs and I/O devices.


In Bluetree, components provide Client and Server interfaces (these are standards defined by BSV's IP library). A Client interface originates requests; a Server interface serves them. The interfaces are defined as follows (in the Bluetree.bsv package):

typedef Client#(BluetreeClientPacket, BluetreeServerPacket) BluetreeClient;

typedef Server#(BluetreeClientPacket, BluetreeServerPacket) BluetreeServer;

The BluetreeClientPacket/BluetreeServerPacket structures describe the meaning of the data bus lines running in each direction. CPUs have BluetreeClient interfaces:

interface IfcMicroblaze;
interface BluetreeClient client;

A RAM provides a Server interface, for example:

interface IfcBRAMServer;
interface BluetreeServer server;

The Bluetree is created using the mkConnection method, defined in BSV's ClientServer package. For instance, we may link a Microblaze CPU to a block RAM:

IfcMicroblaze cpu <- mkMicroblaze();
IfcBRAMServer ram <- mkBRAMServer();
mkConnection(cpu.client, ram.server);

Other components can provide multiple Client and Server interfaces. For instance, each non-leaf, non-root node in the tree acts as a Server for each child, and acts as a Client for its parent. The BluetreeMux2 component serves exactly two children:

interface IfcBluetreeMux2;
interface BluetreeClient client;
interface BluetreeServer server0;
interface BluetreeServer server1;

We may use this to connect more than one CPU to a single RAM, e.g.

IfcMicroblaze cpu0 <- mkMicroblaze();
IfcMicroblaze cpu1 <- mkMicroblaze();
IfcBRAMServer ram <- mkBRAMServer();
IfcBluetreeMux2 mux <- mkBluetreeMux2();
mkConnection(cpu0.client, mux.server0);
mkConnection(cpu1.client, mux.server1);
mkConnection(mux.client, ram.server);

Since BluetreeMux2 is itself a client we can connect two or more instances together, building a tree of (almost) arbitrary size. The BluetreeMuxN component does this automatically. It is given the required number of servers as a parameter, e.g.

BluetreeMuxN#(10) mem_service <- mkBluetreeCompoundMuxN();

The servers are then named mem_service.server[0] through mem_service.server[9]. A tree of BluetreeMux2 components is automatically generated. If the number of services is not a power of 2, then low-numbered servers will have a shorter path through the tree.

Tree sizes are ultimately limited by the size of the BluetreeCPUId type which identifies the CPU making each a request. You can redefine this type (or any other) by introducing a local copy of the BluetreeIf.bsv file within the directory for each board.

Boot ROM client

Bluetree clients are not necessarily CPUs or multiplexers. Another possibility is a co-processor. There is also the BootROMClient which copies the contents of its internal ROM into whatever RAM is connected, creating an initial image to be booted from. At one time, BootROMClient had to be the highest priority member of Bluetree to ensure that the initial image was in place before any CPU could begin running. However, as of SVN revision 915, this restriction is relaxed because CPUs no longer start automatically. (See boot ROM and Microblaze pages.)


Servers may be provided by hardware that is external to Bluespec, e.g. DDR3 memory. At the moment, SVN contains example projects including such an interface for the Atlys, VC707 and ML605 boards. In each case the server is in fact an AXI interface, translating Bluetree to AXI, and the RAM is implemented within an XPS project, imported into Xilinx ISE. There is an XPS component called bluetree2axi which contains the Bluetree/AXI conversion.


Bluetree clients and servers may communicate with external devices. Sometimes this interface is necessarily dedicated to one function, as in the case of external memory interfaces or serial port clients. For a general and reusable I/O interface, we provide the Bluetiles NoC system. This allows multiple CPUs, I/O devices and co-processors to communicate amongst themselves. The Microblaze Bluetree client also has a Bluetiles interface.

Expanding Bluetree Packets

At the moment, it's quite tricky to expand a Bluetree packet, since multiple external bridges need to be updating. If you need to alter the Bluetree packet formats, see the Expanding Bluetree page to see which extra files also need to be updated to ensure your design works!